Health, Board of

Health, Board of

Health, Board of, is a policy-forming or advisory body that aids the executive branch of a government in operating the health department. Both state and local governments have boards of health. Duties of a state board may be advisory or regulatory. Some state boards have executive and police powers to enforce public health laws. City and county boards may have similar duties and powers. In some states, all members must be physicians. In others, members must represent all professions concerned with public health. Still others specify representation of the nonprofessional public. Members of state boards may be appointed by the governor or elected by the state medical society. Members of local boards may be appointed by the mayor or council, or elected by the citizens. The United States does not have a federal board of health. In its place, Congress has authorized the appointment of advisory committees and councils to the United States Public Health Service. The U.S. Public Health Service is part of the Department of Health and Human Services.

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Health Food

Health Food

Health food is a term used to describe a variety of foods and products that some people believe will improve or preserve their health. Many supermarkets have a health food section, and some stores specialize entirely in such products. Popular health foods include bran, tofu (soybean curd), yogurt, and foods high in specific nutrients thought to have particular health benefits. Medical and nutritional research have shown that numerous foods promote well-being. However, promises about health foods can be exaggerated or even false, such as claims to prevent aging or cure disease. The governments of many countries regulate the use of such words as organic, natural, and healthy on food labels and in advertisements to reduce deceptive claims. Types of health foods. Some consumers who have concerns about the safety of additives (chemicals added to foods), pesticides, and highly processed food often select organic or natural foods. Farmers grow organic foods without using synthetic fertilizers or pesticides. Natural foods undergo little or no processing (chemical alteration or treatment), so they keep their natural nutritious qualities. They generally lack such additives as artificial colors and preservatives, which prevent spoilage. Naturally occurring or specially created foods that have been scientifically shown to benefit health are sometimes called functional foods. Designer foods are functional foods developed through crossbreeding or genetic engineering. For example, scientists have “designed” a type of rice rich in beta-carotene, a healthful nutrient. Packaged products to which the manufacturer has added nutrients are also called designer foods. Retailers often sell dietary supplements, such as vitamins and minerals, as a health food. Vitamins may be made from natural sources or artificially produced. Both types are chemically identical and equally effective. But natural supplements, like health foods, often cost more. History. People have long recognized the relationship between a balanced diet and good health. In the early 1800′s, the American dietary reformer Sylvester Graham lectured on the benefits of eating whole grain flours. The American cereal manufacturers John H. Kellogg, his brother Will Kellogg, and Charles W. Post promoted Graham’s ideas. They introduced ready-to-eat breakfast cereals, which they advertised as health food. In the 1970′s, whole grain foods gained in popularity after Denis P. Burkitt, a British physician, suggested that the relatively low occurrence of digestive problems among people in Africa may result from their high-fiber diet.

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Health and Human Services, Department of

Health and Human Services, Department of

Health and Human Services, Department of, is an executive department of the United States government that works to ensure public health and to assist children and families. The secretary of health and human services directs the department and serves in the president’s Cabinet. The president appoints the secretary with the consent of the U.S. Senate. The department is sometimes called HHS. The department was created in 1953 as the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. In 1979, Congress passed legislation transferring most education programs from that department to a new Cabinet-level Department of Education. The Department of Health, Education, and Welfare was renamed the Department of Health and Human Services. The HHS website at http://www.hhs.gov presents information on the department’s activities. Organization. The department is divided into 11 agencies and the Office of the Secretary. The first 8 agencies listed are part of the U.S. Public Health Service (see Public Health Service (PHS)). The department includes the surgeon general, who serves as the nation’s chief health adviser (see Surgeon general of the United States). The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality oversees research programs. It seeks to raise the quality, safety, efficiency, and effectiveness of health care. The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry works to prevent threats to public health from toxic substances. Its responsibilities include waste site assessment, emergency response, and education and training. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention aims to prevent and control disease, injury, and disability. It provides health information and statistics and conducts research to track down the sources of epidemics. The Food and Drug Administration works to ensure that foods, cosmetics, drugs, and medical devices are safe and effective. It oversees the review and approval of new medicines and medical devices. The Health Resources and Services Administration works to improve health care access for people who are uninsured or isolated. It distributes grants to state governments and health care providers. The Indian Health Service provides health care to American Indians and Alaska Natives. The Indian health system includes hospitals, clinics, and other facilities. The National Institutes of Health is the government’s primary medical research agency. It includes a number of institutes and centers that conduct and support a wide range of biomedical and behavioral research. The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration oversees programs for people with mental illnesses or substance abuse problems. It provides both prevention and treatment services. The Administration on Aging oversees programs for the elderly. It provides home and community-based services to older Americans. The Administration for Children and Families oversees such programs as Head Start, Temporary Assistance for Needy Families, and Child Support Enforcement. It also administers adoption assistance, foster care, and child abuse prevention programs. The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services administers the Medicare and Medicaid programs. Medicare provides health insurance for people age 65 and older and for some people with disabilities. Medicaid provides health care for many people who could not otherwise afford it. History. In the 1800′s, state and local governments provided most government welfare services. Federal activities in this field began in the 1900′s. In 1939, the Federal Security Agency was established to administer major programs in the fields of social security, job placement, education, and public health. In 1953, the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (HEW) was established, and all Federal Security Agency functions were transferred to it. These functions included those of the Office of Education, the Public Health Service, and the Social Security Administration. The Social Security Administration administers federal programs to provide retirement, disability, and death benefits. In 1979, Congress enacted a law that created the Department of Education and moved most education programs to the new department. The following year, HEW was renamed the Department of Health and Human Services. The Administration for Children and Families was formed as part of HHS in 1991. In 1995, the Social Security Administration was separated from the department and made an independent federal agency.

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Health

Health

Health is a state of physical, mental, and social well-being. It involves more than just the absence of disease. A truly healthy person not only feels good physically but also has a realistic outlook on life and gets along well with other people. Good health enables people to enjoy life and have the opportunity to achieve their goals. To achieve and maintain good health, people must have basic knowledge about the human body and how it functions. Only then can they determine what will or what will not help or hurt their health. Learning about health should be a part of everyone’s education.   Personal hygiene Society as a whole benefits from people’s good health just as individuals do. For that reason, many government and voluntary agencies strive to preserve and improve the health of all people. The World Health Organization (WHO), an agency of the United Nations, works to promote better health throughout the world. Elements of physical health All parts of the body must work together properly to maintain physical health. A person who is in good physical condition has the strength and energy to enjoy an active life and withstand the stresses of daily life. The various practices that help maintain health include proper nutrition, exercise, rest and sleep, cleanliness, and regular medical and dental care. Nutrition. A balanced diet provides all the food substances needed by the body for healthy growth and development. Nutritionists use the term nutrients for these substances and classify them into six main groups: (1) water, (2) carbohydrates, (3) fats, (4) proteins, (5) vitamins, and (6) minerals. The National Academy of Sciences maintains a list of Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA), which provides information on how much of each nutrient a person needs each day. Dietary fiber is also important to health, though no RDA has been established for it.   Picture Different varieties of fruit A balanced diet consists of a wide variety of foods. Fruits and vegetables provide important vitamins and minerals. Meat, poultry, fish, eggs, dried beans, some dairy products, and nuts are rich sources of protein. Bread, cereals, and potatoes furnish carbohydrates in addition to vitamins, minerals, and fiber. Good nutrition also includes eating the proper amount of food each day. Overeating can lead to excess weight, which strains the heart and increases the risk of getting such illnesses as diabetes and heart disease. Many people try to lose weight quickly by following fad diets. But these diets can be dangerous, especially if used over a long period. The safest way to lose weight is to consult a physician or dietitian and follow the program he or she prescribes. Most programs combine moderate daily exercise with a balanced diet that contains a limited number of calories. Exercise helps keep the body healthy and fit. Vigorous exercise strengthens muscles and improves the function of the circulatory and respiratory systems. Physical fitness benefits both physical and mental health and helps the body withstand stress. To achieve fitness, a person should start an exercise program slowly and build it up gradually to a level that maintains a healthy heart and strong muscles. Engaging several times a week in such popular activities as bicycling, jogging, and swimming—and even taking long, brisk walks—can furnish the vigorous exercise that is necessary for fitness. Participating in golf, bowling, or some other sport only once or twice a week cannot develop and maintain fitness. Rest and sleep help overcome fatigue and restore energy to the body. Everyone needs rest and sleep, but the amount required differs for each individual. Most adults sleep from 7 to 81/2 hours a night, though some need less sleep and others need more. Young children may need more sleep at night plus a daytime nap. Nearly everyone has trouble falling asleep occasionally. However, frequent insomnia (inability to sleep naturally) can indicate various physical or emotional disorders. Therefore, it is best to consult a physician about any frequent sleep problem. Some people take sleeping pills to counteract insomnia. But such drugs can make sleeping problems worse, and they should not be used without a doctor’s prescription. Rest and relaxation are as important as sleep. After strenuous work or exercise, a person may need a period of total rest. At other times, only relaxation or a change of pace is necessary. Any activity that differs from the normal routine of work or study can be relaxing. Pleasurable and relaxing activities help the body shed tension and remain robust. If rest and relaxation do not relieve fatigue and tension, the individual may have a physical or emotional problem. Cleanliness controls the growth of bacteria and other germs that can cause disease. A regular bath or shower keeps the body free from dirt and odor. In addition, it helps prevent skin infections that may develop if bacteria grow and multiply on the skin. The hair should also be washed regularly. Daily dental care is another important part of personal cleanliness. Brushing the teeth properly and using dental floss keep the teeth clean and help prevent decay and gum disease. Medical and dental care. Regular checkups by a physician and dentist play an important role in safeguarding health. Doctors recommend that people seek medical care at the first sign of illness. Early care can result in a quicker cure and lower medical costs. Treating oneself for more than a day or two is unwise unless the condition improves steadily. A physician or medical clinic has the knowledge and special equipment to provide accurate diagnosis and treatment. Prevention of disease is an important part of medical care. Children should visit a doctor or clinic to receive immunization against chickenpox, diphtheria, measles, mumps, polio, rubella, tetanus, whooping cough, meningitis caused by the bacterium Haemophilus influenzae type b, and hepatitis B. See Immunization. Elements of mental health Physical health and mental health are closely connected. Mental health plays an important role in both the way people behave and the way they feel. Emotionally healthy individuals accept themselves as they are—with all their weaknesses as well as their strengths. They remain in contact with reality and can deal with stress and frustration. They also act independently of outside influences and show genuine concern for others. Emotional development. Experiences during childhood strongly influence a person’s mental health throughout life. An infant is completely helpless at birth and must depend on its parents for all its needs. Children remain dependent for many years, but they slowly mature and learn to do things for themselves. They make many mistakes during this long period of growth and maturation. Through these errors, they learn certain guidelines for relating to other people. Thus, children develop the knowledge necessary to deal with difficult situations in life. This knowledge helps them maintain good mental health throughout life. Emotional development does not end when a person reaches adulthood. Similarly, an individual’s mental health continues to change from time to time. These changes result from daily circumstances that cause either pleasure or pain for the person. Handling stress is essential for avoiding both mental and physical illness. Feelings of stress are the body’s response to any threatening or unfamiliar situation. Most severe stress results from such serious events as a divorce or loss of a job. However, stress can occur even in pleasant situations, such as watching a football game or waiting for a loved one to return from a trip. If not handled properly, stress can lead to physical or emotional illness. It may produce only mild symptoms, such as a cough, a headache, or a rash. But severe and prolonged stress can contribute to serious health problems, including high blood pressure and stomach ulcers. No one can avoid stress, but a person can do certain things to help lessen the danger of becoming ill from it. Regular exercise and sufficient sleep strengthen the body’s resistance to stress. Everyone should learn to relax by resting, taking a walk, meditating, working with a hobby, or by any other method that he or she finds successful. When serious stress occurs, a person should determine the source of the stress and try to eliminate or diminish it. Discussing a problem with a friend, relative, or some other person may also help relieve stress. If these measures are not helpful enough, a mental health professional should be consulted. Social relationships have an important influence on mental health. Close personal relationships with friends and relatives provide opportunities for communication, sharing, and emotional growth. Such relationships also can provide strength and support for dealing with challenging situations or personal problems. An individual’s entire social environment also affects his or her mental health. Such social problems as poverty, racism, and overcrowding contribute to situations that influence emotional health. As a result, social and economic changes are needed to help reduce the rate of some types of mental illness. Health hazards The nature of health problems in the United States and Canada changed dramatically during the 1900′s. Until then, most people died from infectious diseases, such as diphtheria or pneumonia. Today, however, infectious diseases are no longer the main killers in the United States, Canada, and other industrialized nations. Improved sanitation, immunization programs, and the development of antibiotic drugs have brought these diseases under control. Today, health specialists are chiefly concerned with diseases related to the aging process, unhealthy lifestyles, and environmental hazards. Tobacco, alcohol, and drug abuse. According to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), cigarette smoking is the principal cause of unnecessary and preventable illness and early death. Heart disease, lung cancer and other lung diseases, and several other types of cancer occur at a much higher rate among smokers than among nonsmokers. Many individuals use various drugs in an effort to solve their problems or to improve their alertness, mood, or self-confidence. However, the regular use of alcohol, narcotics, or sedatives can lead to addiction and also serious damage to the body. People may become psychologically dependent on a wide variety of other drugs, including amphetamines, cocaine, LSD, marijuana, and tranquilizers. These individuals may harm themselves further by neglecting their health and nutrition. In addition, drugs can distort a person’s judgment and so increase the risk of accidents. Alcohol is one of the most widely abused drugs in the United States. Millions of people suffer from alcoholism. There is no cure, but the condition can be treated. An alcoholic who gives up drinking can return to a healthy, productive life. Environmental health hazards caused by modern technology can produce serious problems. Air pollution can worsen the condition of people who suffer from such respiratory diseases as asthma and bronchitis. It may even help cause some diseases, including cancer and emphysema. In some areas, insecticides and industrial wastes contaminate food and water supplies. Excessive noise can also threaten people’s health. Noise from airplanes, construction projects, and industrial plants can cause hearing loss as well as emotional damage. Occupational health hazards threaten the health of many workers. In some cases, substances involved in a person’s job may cause long-term damage that appears only after many years. For example, many coal miners develop a lung disease called pneumoconiosis, or black lung, from inhaling coal dust. Dust also causes lung diseases among workers in the asbestos and cotton industries. Some industrial chemicals, including arsenic and vinyl chloride, cause cancer. People who work with X rays and other forms of radiation also face a health hazard unless proper precautions are used. Public health Public health includes all actions taken to maintain and improve the general health of a community. Government health programs provide most public health services. In addition, many voluntary health agencies receive contributions to combat specific diseases, such as cancer and lung disease. These agencies provide medical services, campaign for health legislation, and make important contributions to health education. In the United States, the Public Health Service administers the government’s public health programs. State and local health departments also provide a wide range of services in most communities. For example, they work to prevent and control disease by providing proper sanitation, conducting immunization programs, and enforcing quarantines. They also operate clinics that offer free laboratory tests and other medical services to the public. Another important function of public health agencies is to provide health education to individuals, groups, and organizations.

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The actual Importance associated with Fitness

The actual Importance associated with Fitness

In this regarding fad diet programs, bodyweight l oss dietary supplements, verified methods as well as protein dusts, it may be declared coming from l any sight associated with what healthful l iving is about. The majority of the ‘common sense’ elements are actually considered as being dull and out-of-date. Still the value of correct, fad-free healthful l iving must not be glossed over. Residing a proper l ife is very important for everybody, because it has its own proven wellness effects that offer more advantages than any kind of commercial dietary product may. To raised understand this, it is advisable to first understand what healthful l iving is really regarding. EXERCISE No doubt you’ve heard countless different justifications that individuals could make to get from working out. The most typical tend to be, “I you do not have time”, “I possess a poor back/knee/ankle” and just “I avoid really feel l ove it”. Conquering the psychological barrier before daily workout is difficult for most of us, because it requires a l evel associated with discipline as well as dedication that numerous l ack. Still in fact, workout is a part of the healthful l ifestyle. Any kind of l ifestyle which promotes by itself to be “effective without having exercise” is actually making fake claims as to what true it really is about. Every day exercise just involves in regards to a 20 moment investment with time, and may have very benefits on the general l evel associated with wellness. DIET Consuming a diet plan which is classified to be “healthy” is becoming more challenging. Nearly all foods offered at the supermarket are greatly prepared, l aden along with salt and full of undesirable material (such because body fat, sugars, etc). In inclusion for this, there are l ots of dietary “experts” who else in order to the actual true techniques of the nutritious diet. In fact, consuming healthy is not really everything complex. Fruits, veggies, grains, fiber-rich foods as well as pure proteins sources are it takes to really a new nutritious diet. Although idea might seem incredibly simple, it does not take easiest way to ensure you are consuming balanced and healthy diet. CONCLUSION There is absolutely no excuse to follow along with fad diet programs, under-qualified dietary ‘experts’ as well as weight l oss pills once the step to healthful l iving is really incredibly easy. There is absolutely no ‘miracle pill’ or even ‘fat-busting food’ which will immediately cause you to healthful. Regardless of what diet regime you might be upon, workout is important and no health supplement for this. Your decision in order to l i have a proper l ife is really a l ong phrase dedication, nevertheless people who select the l ifestyle in no way second guess

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